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Glossary
  • Back Haul
  • Routes which are against the standard flow of traffic, i.e. loading in a port situated in what is usually a discharge area, and discharging in a port situated in what is usually a loading area
  • Ballast
  • The period of time during which a ship performs a voyage without cargo on board
  • Baltic Dry Index or BDI
  • the BDI is published every London working day by the Baltic Exchange, which collates information for Handysize, Supramax, Panamax and Capesize vessels to create this lead freight market indicator
  • Baltic Handysize Spot Index / BHSI
  • the BHSI is published every London working day by the Baltic Exchange, which has collated information on fixtures for a number of routes in relation to a standard “28,000 dwt” vessel with 4 x 30 mt cranes and maximum 15 years of age. The index is also published on the basis of a Time Charter return, and is used to determine the value of the trading routes and settlement prices for FFAs
  • Baltic Supramax Index / BSI
  • The BSI is published every London working day by the Baltic Exchange, who have collated information on fixtures for a number of routes in relation to a standard “Tess 52” type vessel. This vessel is 52,454 dwt, with 4x30 mt cranes and grabs, and maximum 10 years of age. The index is also published on the basis of a Time Charter return, and is used to determine the value of the trading routes and settlement prices for FFAs.
  • Bareboat or Bareboat Charter
  • Charter for an agreed period of time during which the ship owner provides only the ship while the charterer provides the crew together with all stores and bunkers and pays all Vessel Operating Costs
  • Barge
  • Flat barges are designed to carry cargo, typically bulk cargoes such as rock, aggregates, coal and project cargos and break-bulk cargoes. Barges may be used for short sea voyages where cargo volumes make larger vessels less economical, for serving shallow draft ports or for offshore lightering operations. Barges may be ballastable and designed for ocean, coastal or river operations.
  • Beam
  • The greatest width of a vessel
  • Board
  • the board of directors of the Company
  • Bollard pull
  • A measure of the pulling power of a tug in tons. It is an indication of the maximum pulling force that a tug can exert on another ship or object
  • Bulk or Dry bulk
  • An expression for bulk commodities, or Dry Cargo, referring to everything stowed in bulk without packaging

  • Bunker(s)
  • Fuel, consisting of fuel oil and diesel, burned in the vessel’s engines
  • Capesize
  • Dry bulk carrier with a capacity of more than 100,000 dwt (usually 130,000 to 200,000 dwt) which, due to its size, must transit the Atlantic to the Pacific via Cape Horn or the Cape of Good Hope when loaded. Such large vessels are typically employed for long voyages in the coal and iron ore trades
  • Charter
  • A contract for the commercial leasing of a vessel or space on a vessel
  • Charter-hire
  • the revenue earned by a vessel pursuant to a Bareboat Charter or a Time Charter (See “freight” for Voyage Charter or Contract of Affreightment revenue)
  • Charterer
  • A person, firm or company hiring a vessel for the carriage of goods or other purposes
  • Classification societies
  • societies Independent societies which certify that a vessel has been built and is maintained in accordance with the rules of such society and in compliance with the applicable rules and regulations of the vessel’s Flag State and the international conventions of which that Flag State is a signatory
  • Commercial management
  • Management of those aspects of ship owning and operation that relate to obtaining economic value from the vessel which includes ship financing, sale and purchase, chartering or vessel employment, voyage execution, insurance and claims handling, accounting and corporate administration
  • Contract of Affreightment / COA
  • Is similar to a Voyage Charter but covers two or more shipments over an agreed period of time (this could be over a number of months or years), and no particular vessel is specified
  • Demurrage
  • An agreed amount payable to the ship owner by the Charterer when the agreed time allowed for loading or unloading cargo has been exceeded through no fault of the owner
  • Draft
  • Vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the vessel’s keel (i.e. the depth of the ship in the water)
  • Dry cargo
  • Transport of non-liquid cargo, usually Bulk commodities such as grain, coal, iron ore, sugar and cement, but also packaged general cargo
  • Drydocking
  • The removal of a vessel from the water for inspection, maintenance and/or repair of parts that are normally submerged
  • Dwt or Deadweight
  • Dead weight tonnes, the unit of measurement of weight capacity of vessels, which is the total weight (usually in metric tonnes) the ship can carry, including cargo, Bunkers, water, stores, spares, crew, etc. at a specified Draft
  • Flag state
  • The country where the vessel is registered
  • Forward Freight Agreements / FFAs
  • A derivative instrument that is a means of hedging exposure to freight market risk through the purchase or sale of specified time charter rates for forward positions. Settlement is in cash, against a daily market index published by the Baltic Exchange
  • Freight
  • The revenue earned by a vessel pursuant to a Voyage Charter or a Contract of Affreightment
  • Front haul
  • When export cargoes (suitable for a particular ship type) exceed the import cargoes in respect of that trade or region
  • Handymax
  • Dry bulk carrier of 40,000 to 64,999 dwt which carries a wide variety of cargoes including Major and Minor Bulk cargoes. The segment comprises Handymax, Supramax and Ultramax ships spanning 40,000-65,000 dwt. See “Supramax” for the definition of the modern, mid-size, standard Handymax.
  • Handysize
  • Dry bulk carrier of 10,000 to 39,999 dwt (of which our sub-segment is 25,000-39,999dwt) which is commonly equipped with cargo gear such as cranes. This type of vessel carries principally Minor Bulk cargoes and limited quantities of Major Bulk cargoes. It is well suited for transporting cargoes to ports that may have draft restrictions or are not equipped with gear for loading or discharging cargoes
  • IMO
  • International Maritime Organisation, a specialised agency of the United Nations that promotes cooperation among governments and the shipping industry to improve maritime safety and to prevent pollution
  • ISM Code
  • The International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention adopted by the International Maritime Organisation
  • Lane metre
  • The unit of measurement of capacity of RoRo vessels, which is calculated by multiplying the cargo deck length in metres by the cargo deck width in lanes
  • Listing Rules
  • The Rules Governing the Listing of Securities on The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited
  • Major Bulk
  • Dry bulk cargoes consisting of iron ore, coal and grain
  • Minor Bulk
  • Dry bulk cargoes such as forest products, iron and steel products, fertilisers, agricultural products, minerals and petcoke, bauxite and alumina, cement, other construction materials and salt
  • Mt or Tonnes
  • Metric tonnes
  • Newbuilding
  • A vessel under construction or on order
  • Off-Hire
  • Period during which a vessel is temporarily unable to operate under the terms of its Charter, resulting in loss of income under the Charter
  • P&I
  • Protection and indemnity insurance coverage taken by a ship owner or Charterer against third party liabilities such as oil pollution, cargo damage, crew injury or loss of life, etc
  • Panamax
  • Dry bulk carrier of about 65,000 to 90,000 dwt with Beam not exceeding 32.2 metres which permits it to transit, when fully loaded, through the Panama Canal. Panamax vessels are primarily used to transport Major Bulks, although they can be used to transport certain Minor Bulks such as fertilisers, ores, petcoke and salt
  • Post panamax
  • Dry bulk carrier of about 90,000 to 119,999 dwt with Beam exceeding 32.2 metres, which are mainly used to transport coal and grains; occasionally referred to as mini-capesize vessels
  • Roll-on Roll-off / RoRo
  • Means roll on roll off transportation involving the carriage of wheeled cargoes and freight on wheeled trailers which can be loaded and discharged over a ramp, rather than lifted on and off the vessels using cranes
  • Spot market
  • The market for immediate chartering of a vessel, usually for a single cargo or short term trading
  • Supramax
  • Dry bulk carrier of 50,000 to 60,000 dwt which carries a wide variety of cargoes including Major and Minor Bulk cargoes. We now refer more accurately to our own Handymax ships as “Supramax” ships which are generally considered to represent the modern, mid-size, standard Handymax.
  • Technical Management
  • Management of those aspects of ship owning and operation that relate to the physical operation of a vessel, including the provision of crew, routine maintenance, repairs, drydocking, supplies of stores and spares, compliance with all applicable international regulations, safety and quality management, environmental protection, newbuilding plan approval and newbuilding supervision, and related technical and financial reporting
  • Time Charter
  • Charter for an agreed period of time where the ship owner is paid on a per day basis and is responsible for operating the vessel and paying the Vessel Operating Costs while the Charterer is responsible for paying the Voyage Costs and bears the risk of any delays at port or during the voyage except where caused by a defect of the ship
  • Time Charter Equivalent / TCE
  • Freight and Charter-hire less Voyage Costs incurred expressed as a daily rate over the duration of the voyage

  • Tonnage
  • A generic term refering to any kind of ocean-going cargo vessel or vessels
  • Tug
  • Small vessel with varied uses covering harbour assist work (berthing of large cargo/passenger vessels), serving offshore oil activity, salvage work and for towing barges for the purpose of transporting cargo
  • Vessel Operating Costs
  • These consist of crew expenses, insurance, spare parts, stores and lubricating oils, vessel repairs and surveys, commissions and other miscellaneous running costs
  • Voyage Charter
  • Charter under which a ship owner is paid Freight on the basis of transporting cargo from a load port to a discharge port and is responsible for paying both Vessel Operating Costs and Voyage Costs
  • Voyage Costs
  • Bunker costs, port charges and canal dues (or tolls) incurred during the course of a voyage